Apartheid was a system of institutionalized racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991 when it was abolished. The country's first multiracial elections under a universal franchise were held three years later in 1994.
The Preamble of Indian Constitution has declared India as Republic State which means the head of the state is the President who is an elected representative and not a hereditary person. President is elected by a voting body called Electoral College.
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