Manufacturing Industries - Class 10 Geography - Extra Questions
Describe the early experiments with the iron and steel industry in India.
The real beginning of modem iron
and steel industry was made in 1907 only when Tata Iron and Steel Company
(TISCO) were set up at Jamshedpur (Sakchi at that time). The Indian Iron and
Steel Company (IISCO) were set up in 1919 at Bumpur followed by the setting up
of Mysore Steel Works at Bhadravati (now Visveswaraya Iron and Steel Works) in
Iron and steel Industry witnessed
rapid growth after Independence. India produced 16.9 lakh tonnes of pig iron
in. 1950-51. The development of iron and steel industry was envisaged during
the first Five-Year Plan, but it was during the Second Five-Year Plan that the
three integrated steel projects were started at Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur.
Answer the following question in six sentences:
What are the factors influencing the location of Industries?
In determining the location of an industry, nearness to the sources of raw material is of vital importance. An adequate supply of cheap and skilled labour is also necessary for an industry to succeed. Access to markets is another important factor which the entrepreneur must take into consideration. Industries producing perishable or bulky commodities which cannot be transported over long distance are generally located in close proximity to its markets. The transportation with its three modes, i.e., water, road, and rail collectively play an important role in the selection of the location of an industry. Another factor influencing the location of an industry is the availability of cheap power.
Why are jute factories concentrated more in West Bengal?
The following factors promote the establishment of factories in West Bengal:
- Availability of raw jute. - Fresh water, cheap water transport. - Power resource, cheap labour. - Port facilities.
In what way does the cotton industry contribute to the economy of India? Mention any three relevant factors.
The contribution of cotton industry to the economy of India are. (a) It is the premier industry of India. (b) Directly or indirectly more than $$2$$ crore people depend upon this industry. (c) India is the world's third largest exporter of cotton textiles.
What are Industrial town?
An industrial town is a city where the economic system is based on the industry, such as a mining town. • An area where workers of a monolithic heavy industry live within walking-distance of their places of work.
What are the factors influencing the location of an industry?
The factors affecting location of an industry are:
(i) Availability of raw materials (ii) Energy resources (iii) Market (iv) Transport facility (v) Availability of labour (vi) Port facility (vii) Land availability at low cost (viii) Technology (ix) Governmental policies.
Give two suggestions for progress of cotton textile industry in India.
of the textile mills are old with obsolete machinery. This result in
low productivity and inferior quality. First test is to replace old
machinery with the new and latest machinery.
Power supply is the
second big problem for cotton industry which affects the production.
Government should do some proper arrangements for this problem.
Labour productivity should be increased.
What is the importance of jute textile industry in India?
Jute Textile Industry is one of
the major industries in the Eastern India, particularly in West Bengal. Jute supports around 40 lakh farm families
and provides direct employment to 2.6 lakh industrial workers and 1.4 lakh in
the tertiary sector. The production
process in the jute industry goes through a variety of activities, which
include cultivation of raw jute, processing of jute fibers, spinning, weaving,
bleaching, dyeing, finishing and marketing of both, the raw jute and its
finished products. So, jute industry is labor intensive and as such its labor-output
ratio is also high in spite of various difficulties being faced by the
industry. Capacity utilization of the industry is around 75 per cent. Jute industry contributes to the export
earnings in the range of Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 1, 200 crore annually.
'Though Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of sugar mills yet Maharashtra is the largest producer of sugar'. Give any two reasons to justify the statement.
1. Tropical climate, black soil, high temperature throughout the year, good rainfall, irrigations frost-free growing season are best suited geographical conditions which give high yield per unit in Maharashtra as compared to North India (U.P.).
2. The sucrose content is higher in the tropical variety of sugarcane in Maharashtra as compared to Uttar Pradesh.
3. The cooperative sugar mills are better managed in Maharashtra, than in U.P.
4. Most of the mills are new in Maharashtra with modern machinery as compared
Write a note on Synthetic Textile industry in India.
Unlike the other sectors of Indian Textile Industry, the India synthetic fiber industry is an organized sector. The main products of the India synthetic fiber industry include man-made fiber and yarn. Indian fabrics are known for their excellent workmanship, colors, and durability. The Synthetic and Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council (SRTEPC) was set up in 1954, to extend all possible assistance to Indian exporters of synthetic and rayon textiles and to overseas buyers doing business in India.
Name the products and by-products of sugar industry?
The main by-products are bagasse, molasses and press mud. The other products and their by-products of less commercial value are green leaves and tops, trash, boiler ash and effluent generated by sugar industry and distillery.
Distinguish between agro-based industry and mineral based industry.
Agro based industries
These industries derive their raw materials from agriculture.
Agro based industries usually do not require huge amount of capital.
Examples- Jute industry and sugar industry
Mineral based industries
These industries use minerals as their raw materials.
These are capital intensive units as involves large investment
Example- Iron and steel industry and automobile industry.
Write a short note on sugar industry.
India is the largest producer of sugar including traditional cane sugar sweeteners, khandsari and Gur. It was in 1903 that sugar mills on modern lines were successfully started in Bihar. Sugarcane is the key raw material for the producing of sugar in India. The sugar industry is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab in the north and the other that of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in the south.
How does Mumbai's climate help in cotton cultivation?
Cotton is the crop of tropical and sub-tropical areas and requires uniformly high temperature varying between 21°C and 30°C. The growth of cotton is retarded when the temperature falls below 20°C.
The modest requirement of water can be met by an average annual rainfall of 50- 100 cm.A humid climate is essential for cotton to grow properly with good fertile soil.So due all these climatic conditions Mumbai climate help in cotton cultivation.
Who were the pioneer entrepreneurs to invest in the cotton textile industry?
The first Indian cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloaster near Kolkata, albeit this mill was a failure. The second mill which was established by Cowasjee Nanabhoy Davar, a Parsi cotton merchant and the pioneer to invest in cotton textile industry in 1854 is said to be the true foundation of modern cotton industry in India. Its name was Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company, Bombay.
Mention three problems of the sugar industry in India.
Three problems of the sugar industry in India are. (i) This industry is seasonal in nature as the raw material is available only at the time of harvest. (ii) There is a great distance between the sugar factories and the fields. Due to transportation, cost of production increases. (iii) There is loss of sucrose if not crushed with in $$24$$hrs.
Which is a seasonal agro-based industry?
Sugarcane industry is seasonal agro-based industry.
The sugar industry subsumes the production, processing and marketing of sugars. Globally, most sugar is extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet. Sugar is used for soft drinks, sweetened beverages, convenience foods, fast food, candy, confectionery, baked products, and other sweetened foods.
Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market. Industries are situated where some or all of these factors are easily available.
What are the advantages of locating industries near big cities?
Cities provide markets and also
provide services like banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants, etc.
Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages of an urban
centre. Such centre is then called as agglomeration economy.
Explain the factors which support dairy farming near big urban centres.
1. Minimum guaranteed market for dairy products throughout the year.
2. Less transportation charges.
3. Dairy farms located just outside the urban centers make the dairy
products production less costly instead of placing farms within the city.
4. Dairy products can be sold at higher prices to urban area people
compared to rural areas.
Which industrty is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
Iron and Steel Industry is often called the backbone of the modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with the tools and machinery of these metals.
Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles we use are made from steel.
Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
responsible for the location of industry include:
Water and power
Availability of suitable
How do industries pollute the environment?
Industrial pollution degrades the environment in the following ways: (i) Air is polluted by the gases. (ii) Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain particles. (iii) Industrial effluents pollute rivers. (iv) Paper pulp, textiles, chemicals, etc. industries pollute land and soil due to toxic materials.
Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
Three human factors which affect the industrial location are availability of cheap labour, availability of services such as consultants and financial advice and availability of market.
Give two examples each of the mineral-based, agro-based and the forest-based industries.
Mineral-based - Copper, Iron.
Agro-based - Silk, Sugar.
Forest-based - Paper, Matchbox.
What problems did the jute industry face after India's partition?
After partition of
Bengal into East Pakistan which is now Bangladesh, all the jute growing areas went
over to Bangladesh and India was left with jute mills. Due to this
partition there was a tremendous shortage of raw material for the jute mills.
Name the range of equipments produced for the agricultural sector in our country.
Which places or states in India are the major producers of cement and paper making units?
Cement - Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan.
Paper- Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.
Name the states where woolen mills have been set up in India.
Kanpur and Mirzapur are the main centers of Woolen Industry. ‘Lal-Imai-Mill’ was the famous woolen mill of North India. Kanpur is the most important industrial town in Uttar Pradesh. Here many units are set up. Agra, Aligarh, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Gorakhpur, Lucknow, Mirzapur, Modinagar, Varanasi, Bhadoi, Bareilly and Firozabad are the towns where the industrial units have been set up.
The important raw material for the sugar industry is ______.
The important raw material of the sugar industry is sugarcane. It is the sugarcane from which the sugar is extracted and pure sugar is produced as an end product. Though sugarcane only contains 10% sugar in it and the rest is molasses which is in a way is useless for the sugar industry.
Mention three problems of the jute textile industry in India.
Problems of jute textile industry. (i) Demand for jute products has decreased due to synthetic substitutes in national and international markets. (ii) India faces a problem of shortage of raw jute as most of the jute growing areas went to Bangladesh after partition. (iii) Outdated machinery and methods of processing jute.
i. State two major problems faced by the sugar industry. ii. Name two by products of the sugar industry.
(i) Two problems faced by sugar industry are:
(1) The sugarcane cultivated in India is of poor quality giving low yield per hectare and low sucrose content.
(2) Old and obsolete machinery is used in sugar production.
(ii) Two by-products of the sugar industry are:
i. State one of the main problems of the silk industry. ii. Name two products of the jute industry, other than rope and gunny bags. iii. Why are synthetic fibres popular?
(i) The changes in prices of raw silk badly affect both the weavers and the silk industry.
(ii) Two products of the jute industry are upholstery and carpets.
(iii) Synthetic fibres are popular because they are cheaper than jute.
Name an agro-based industry based in the following industrial centre: Ahmedabad.
Ahmedabad- Cotton industry.
i. Why is the cotton textile industry called an agro-based industry? ii. Give an important reason for it being more widespread than the jute industry.
(i) Cotton textile is called an agro-based industry because it uses raw materials produced by the agricultural sector.
(ii) Jute industries are mainly located in the Hoogli region as jute is mainly produced in this region. On the contrary, cotton is grown almost all over India and thus cotton industries are most widespread in the country.
Mention two problems of the cotton textile industry in India.
Three problems faced by the cotton textile industry are:
1. There is a shortage of raw material, particularly of long staple cotton, which is imported from other countries.
2. We use old and obsolete machinery.
3. The cotton industry is facing tough competition from the fibre industry.
State three favourable conditions responsible for the growth of the jute industry in West Bengal.
Three favourable conditions are: i. The hot and damp climate favours the growth of jute in the region.
ii. The state is well connected to major towns and cities through rail and road
iii.Availability of coal and cheap labour in the region.
Name a few agro-based industries in India.
Edible Oil industry
When and where was the first modern sugar factory set up in India?
First modern sugar factory was set up in 1903 at Pratappur, Uttar Pradesh.
What is manufacturing?
Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing
How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
plants are large plants which handle everything from putting together of raw material
to steel making.
Mini steel plants
are small industries which are involved in making mild and alloy steel of given
Problems faced by
iron and steel industry:
High cost of
availability of coking coal that is used in smelting of iron
Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
Cotton textile rapidly expanded in Mumbai because of the following reasons:
The city has humid, warm climate which supports the growth of cotton.
The raw material is easily available.
Port is located in Mumbai which is helpful in import and export of products. Apart from these, availabilities of skilled labor also helped in the expansion of cotton industry.
The first modern textile mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai itself.
Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?
Steps to control environmental degradation are: (i) Careful planning and setting of industries. (ii) Better equipment. (iii) Proper fuel selection and utilization. (iv) Use of oil instead of coal. (v) Treatment of industrial liquids. (vi) Control over use of mineral wealth.
Name the factors which influence the location of a cotton textile mill.
Proximity to water bodies or rivers
Uninterrupted power supply
Availability of capital for investment
Proximity to market
Jute industry is basically a raw material oriented industry. Justify.
Jute is the second most important textile industry in India
after cotton textile industry. Raw jute is largely produced in India and most
of jute mills are located on the banks of Hooghly river in West Bengal. Small and
marginal farmers are engaged in the production of jute. Almost all the
procedures in jute product making involves the raw fibres of jute. Hence, jute
industry is basically called a raw-material oriented industry.
How much sugarcane is needed to produce about 1 ton of crystal sugar?
100 kg of sugarcane is needed to produce 1 kg of sugar.
So, 100x1000=100,000 kg of sugarcane is needed to produce 1 ton of sugar.
What factors have helped in the growth of industries in the National Capital Region?
Mass rapid transportation and connectivity to National Capital Region (NCR).
Availability of labor from the neighboring states.
Land availability outside Delhi region.
Immediate market for goods.
What is the significance of the cotton textile industry in India?
This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as, chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works. The handspun khadi provides large scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry. India exports yarn to Japan. Other importers of cotton goods from India are U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.
Why are the cotton textile factories concentrated near well-connected markets?
textile factories are concentrated near well-connected markets. The
existence of market is the ultimate requirement of quick sale of the finished
goods. This reduces transportation costs enabling consumers to buy at cheaper
rates thereby resulting an increase in the sale.
What are the main problems of the sugar industry in India?
The Indian sugar industry is confronted with the following problems:
1. In India, nearly half of the total sugarcane production is diverted to Gur and Khandsari industries which causes a shortage of raw material for the industry.
2. Majority of the mills are old and using obsolete machinery. Management and labor problems further aggregate the situation, making the units uneconomic and sick.
3. The sugar factories also face problem in disposing of the by-products like bagasse and molasses.
What is the position of India as a sugar producing nation in the world?
India stands on second position in the world in the production of sugar but it occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. There are over 460 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat along with Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. Sixty per cent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Why did the indigo planters start cultivating sugarcane in Bihar?
In early twentieth century, Indigo plantation was declining due to loss of business.
Indigo planters started selling their units to sugar planters.
Viceroy Curzon and Coventry had encouraged sugar plantation in Bihar.
The sugar mills are located only in the sugarcane producing areas. Explain.
Sugar mills have
to be located near the sugarcane fields because of factor that it is perishable. Sugarcane contains sucrose and once you cut the sugarcane,
the sucrose content starts to decline. Hence, raw material must be quickly
transported. Sugarcane is the
main source for sugar in India. Sugar industries is set up in the sugarcane
producing areas generally for ease of transport storage and maintenance and
also since sugarcane is a perishable agricultural product.
Name the factors that led to the development of jute industry along the Hooghly river.
following are the factors responsible for the location of Jute industry in the
Hooghly River basin:
Proximity to the jute producing
areas, jute is abundantly grown in the adjoining regions of West Bengal, Bihar
Hooghly River provides for
inexpensive water transport and also for washing jute and jute related goods.
There is good network of railways,
roadways and waterways to facilitate movements of raw materials and labour to
There is an abundant water supply for
processing raw jute.
Cheap labour is available from West
Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha.
Capital facilities are available
from the local capitalist.
Cheap and adequate hydel power is
obtained from DVC in Bihar and West Bengal.
Kolkata provides market and port
facilities to the Industry.
Where and when was the first modern jute mill established in India?
Calcutta (now Kolkata) had the
raw material close by as the jute growing areas were mainly in Bengal. There
was an abundant supply of labor, ample coal for power, and the city was ideally
situated for shipping to world markets. The first jute mill was established at
Rishra, on the River Hooghly near Calcutta in 1855 when Mr. George Acland
brought jute spinning machinery from Dundee. Four years later, the first power
driven weaving factory was set up.
By 1869, five mills were operating with 950 looms. Growth was rapid and,
by 1910, 38 companies operating 30,685 looms exported more than a billion yards
of cloth and over 450 million bags. Until the middle 1880's, the jute industry
was confined almost entirely to Dundee and Calcutta. France, America, and later
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Austria, and Russia, among others, turned to jute
manufacturing in the latter part of the 19th century.
In the following three decades, the jute industry in India enjoyed even more
remarkable expansion, rising to commanding leadership by 1939 with a total of
68,377 looms, concentrated mainly on the River Hooghly near Calcutta. These
mills alone have proved able to supply the world demand.
What are the main problems faced by the iron and steel industry in India?
India is an important producer of iron and steel in the world, we are not able to
perform to our full potential largely due to:
a) High cost: Limited availability of
coking coal as the amount of coking coal is limited, its cost in India is high
therefore the industry faces difficulty in buying it.
b) Low productivity of labour.
c) Irregular supply of energy: There
is an irregular supply of electricity in India, so that work becomes
d) Poor infrastructure: The technological development in India is less as compared to other countries.
e) There is a need to allocate resources for research and development to produce steel more competitively to raise their standards to meet international levels.
Name at least one centre of jute industry in each of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
Bihar - Gaya
Orissa - Cuttack
Uttar Pradesh - Kanpur
Andhra Pradesh - Guntur
Why has Mumbai become one of the major textile manufacturers? Give any three points to support your answer.
Mumbai has humid, warm climate
which supports growth of cotton. Raw material is easily available. Port is
located in Mumbai which is helpful in import and export of products. Apart from
these availability of skilled labour also helped in expansion of cotton
industry. First modern textile mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai itself.
Why is iron and steel industry called the basic industry? Explain any three reasons.
The iron and steel Industry is the basic industry because: i. All the other industries - heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. ii. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods. iii. Iron and steel are heavy industries because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky. It involves heavy transportation costs.
Where was the first jute mill set-up in India?
The first jute mill was set-up in Bengal.
What do you understand by manufacturing?
The process of converting raw
materials, components, or parts into finished goods that meet a customer's
expectations or specifications. Manufacturing commonly employs a man-machine
setup with division of labor in a large scale production.
example- silk is a raw material and silk suit is a finished product manufactured from the silk obtained from silk worm.
Why Mumbai Is known as the 'Lancashere of India.
Mumbai, the capital of Maharastra
is premiere Centre of cotton textile industry of India. Mumbai is known as
Lancashire of India because it is the premier center of cotton textile and also
has 63 cotton mills in and around the city.
Main reasons are:-
1.Availability of raw cottons
4.Cheap hydel Power
5.Abundant labor supply
Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? Explain with examples.
The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries. These industries act as the backbone of the economy in the following ways -
Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture.
The utilization of huge volume of natural resources has become possible with the development of industries in the country.
Increasing volume of investment in industries has led to enhancement in the rate of capital formation in the country.
Organized and unorganized industries are jointly contributing a good portion of the total national income of the country.
These modernize agriculture.
These eradicate unemployment and poverty.
They help in earning foreign exchange.
They help in bringing down regional disparities.
They help in reducing the pressure from agriculture by setting up of industries in rural areas.
Analyse the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy.
1) With the current size of around 108 billion dollars, the Indian chemical Industry accounts for approximately 7 percent of Indian GDP.
2) The chemicals sector accounts for about 14 % in overall index of Industrial production.
3) The share of the Industry in the national exports is around 11 percent.
4) In terms of volume, India is the third largest producer of chemicals in Asia after China and Japan.
5) The government aims to create 100 million additional jobs in the manufacturing sector by 2025. Hence, investments in manufacturing in the chemical sector are absolutely essential to ensure growth of the Indian Chemical Industry.
6) The Indian Chemical industry accounts for approximately 3% in the global share and hence a lot need to be done in this regard. with respect to policy changes and greater tax relaxations. The Industry has a huge potential to drive the Indian economy at a fast pace and create huge employment to harness India's demographic dividend.
Give an account on Iron and Steel Industry in India Under the following heads: (a) Availability of raw material (b) Main Centres of the industry.
Give an account on Iron and Steel Industry in India under the following heads:-
$$(a)$$ Availability of raw material
$$(b)$$ Main centers of the industry
The iron and steel industry is one of the most important industries in India. During $$2014$$ through $$2016$$, India was the third largest producer of raw material and the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. The industry produced $$14.46$$ million ions of total finished steel and $$9.7$$ million tons of raw iron.
$$(b)$$ Main centers of Iron and steel industry.
$$(a)$$ Bhilai Steel Plant
$$(b)$$ Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel plant.
With reference to the cotton textile industry answer the following questions: i. Give two reasons why Mumbai is an important cotton textile industry. ii. Mention two more important centres of cotton textile industry in India.
i. The black cotton soil and humid climate in Mumbai are ideal for cotton. Also, Mumbai’s location as an international port and cheap Hydroelectric power easily available from the Tata hydroelectric grid from the Western Ghats are important reasons for the development of the cotton textile industry there.
ii. Two more important centres of cotton textile industry in India are Ahmedabad in Gujarat and Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu.
Mention any two problems faced by the cotton textile industry of India.
Interrupted power supply
Low quality cotton inputs
Heavy competition in exports
'The Iron and Steel industry constitutes the backbone of modern industrial economy'. Give two reasons to justify the statement.
i. Most of the important industries such as automobile, locomotives, rail tracks, shipbuilding, machinery and tools and manufacture of defence equipment depend on iron and steel industry.
ii. The production and consumption of iron and steel are one of the most significant measures of the level of industrialisation and economic growth of a country.
"The textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy." Elaborate this statement with appropriate arguments.
Textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain. It occupies unique position in Indian economy for the following
(i) Contribution to Industrial Production
The share of textile industrial production is about 14% making it one of the largest industry in India.
(ii) Employment Generation
This industry generates employment for more than 35 million persons directly or indirectly.
(iii) Demand Creation
Textile industries create demand for other industries such as chemicals, days, packing materials and engineering works.
(iv) Contribution to GDP and Foreign Exchange
Textile industry contributes 4% to India's G.D.P. It also helps in earning 24.4% of the total foreign currency drawn in the country.
Thus, it can be concluded that the textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy.
Distinguish between : Agro based Industry and Mineral based industry
Agro Based Industries
(1) Agro-based industries use agricultural products as their basic raw material.
(2) Example - Cotton and jute textiles, Sugar, Food processing, etc.
Mineral Based Industries
(1)Mineral based industries use both metallic and non-metallic minerals as
(2) Example- Iron and steel, Aluminium, Cement, Petrochemicals, etc.
Describe any three problems of small scale and cottage Industries in India.
Problems faced by small scale and cottage Industries:
(1) These industries do not get sufficient raw material.
(2) Due to the unavailability of credit, these industries mostly depend on money lenders for finance who charge a very high rate of interest.
(3) The old method of production and old tools are used by these industries.
(4) These industries have to compete with the goods produced by large scale industries.
Explain the reasons for concentration of iron and steel industries in and around Chotanagpur region.
The reasons are as follows : The earliest industries in India developed near the sources of raw material. and Chhotanagpur plateau being concentrated with iron ore is a good place for industries. The iron and steel industry has been traditionally tied with coal resources, as it uses coking coal for fuel. Coal is also found in this region.
"Iron and Steel industry is the basic as well as heavy industry". Justify the statement with suitable examples.
Basic industries supply their products as raw materials to other industries. This industry produces iron and steel, which is used for manufacturing machines, tools and equipments. Machineries and tools are basic for any manufacturing process.
It also provides raw materials for heavy engineering, automobiles, shipbuilding, manufacturing of locomotives, etc.
The development of these heavy industries is dependent on the supply of iron and steel.
Thus, iron and steel industry plays a key role in the development of any manufacturing industry. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because are examples) are heavy and bulky. They involve heavy transportation cost. Besides, the finished goods are generally either heavy or bulky or both.
Thus, it can be concluded that Iron and steel industry is basic as well as heavy industry.
Industries are responsible for developing urban areas. Discuss
The given statement is justified because
(i) Industrialisation causes growth in available factory jobs. Thus, as employment rate increase it pulls people from various places towards the places where industries are located. (ii) People start moving towards cities for jobs and they gradually develop into urban centres.
Sometimes industries are located in or near cities.
(iii) Cities provide markets and also provide services such a banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc to the industry.
Thus, it can be concluded that industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand.
What are the inputs, processes and output of the iron and steel industry?
Inputs: Include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. Processes: The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. It is then refined. Output: The output obtained is steel which may be used as raw materials by other industries.
How does natural vegetation act as a boon for industries?
Natural vegetation provides raw material to the industries. Some industries use plants for making drugs and medicines. Forest-based and agro-based industries get raw material from natural vegetation
There have been fluctuations in the production of sugar in India. Justify.
Main problems faced by sugarcane industry in India are:
yield of sugarcane: India’s yield is only 64.5 tonnes/hectare as compared to
90 tonnes in Java and 121 tons in Hawaii.
crushing season: Cropping season of sugar cane is 4 to 7 months. Because of
this short crushing season farmers remain idle without any work for months.
cost of production: High cost of sugarcane, inefficient technology, uneconomic
process of production and heavy excise duty result in high cost of
and uneconomic size of mills: Most of the industries in India have 1000 to 1500 tonnes capacity which is small and
imbalances in distribution of industry: 60% of production comes from two states
Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.
per capita consumption: Per capita consumption of sugar cane is very less which
is 16.3 kg when compared to 48.8 kg in USA.
Mention three advantages that a mini steel plant has over an integrated steel plant.
Advantages of Mini steel plants are. (i) They use the electric arc furnace and thus conserve coal. (ii) They require small capital investment. (iii) They cater to the local need of the market and the cost of transport is reduced.