Evolution - Class 12 Medical Biology - Extra Questions

Who was the first direct ancestor of modern humans?

In a population of 1000 individuals 360 belong to AA 480 to Aa and 160 to aa. Find frequency of allele A in population.

With the help of an algebraic equation, how did Hardy-Weinberg explain that in a given population the frequency of occurrence of alleles of a gene is supposed to remain the same through generations?

Name the possible sources of energy in most accepted theory or origin of life.

Mention any four details that can be inferred about

organisms from their fossils. 

What are homologous structures ? Give an example. Is it necessary that homologous structures always have common ancestor ?

What is homoeostasis ?

Define variation.

What are missing links ? Give one example.

Identify the examples of convergent evolution from the following.

(i) Flippers of penguins and dolphins
(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals
(iii) Vertebrate brains

Name and explain the evolutionary concept represented in the illustration given above:


Identify the examples of convergent evolution from the following.
(i) Flippers of penguins and dolpins
(ii) Eyes of octopus and mammals
(iii) Vertebrate brains

"Sweet potato tubers and potato tubers are the result of convergent evolution." Justify the statement

Explain adaptive radiation with the help of a suitable example.

What does the following equation represent? Explain $${p}^{2}+2pq+{q}^{2}=1$$

Explain the interpretation of Charles Darwin when he observed a variety of small block birds on Galapagos Islands.

Practice drawing various animals and plants.

Describe one example of adaptive radiation.

Can we call human evolution as adaptive radiation?

State the following:
(i) Hardy Weinberg's principle
(ii) Theory of recapitulation

What is genetic equilibrium? Write any four factors affecting Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

What is disturbance in Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium indicative of? Explain how it is caused.

Given below is the diagrammatic representation of natural selection of different traits.
a) Identify the type of natural selection A, B and C with an explanation of each.
b) Define Hardy-Weinberg principle

Read the principle and answer the questions :
"Allele frequencies in a population are stable and constant from generation to generation called genetic equilibrium."
(a) Name the principle mentioned here.
(b) Mention any two factors affecting the equilibrium.
(c) What is the significance of disturbances occur in the genetic equilibrium?

Explain the convergent and divergent evolution with suitable examples.

Answer in 40 to 80 words:
State Hardy-weinberg principle. Mention any two factors that affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

On which continent Homo sapiens made the first appearance?

Cro-Magnon Man is scientifically Homo sapiens (sub species fossilis). Write a short note on this.

Explain the saying "ontogeny repeats phylogeny".

In which period and by which nearest ancestors did the evolution of modern man take place?

Short / Long answer type questions.
Ornithologists observed decline in the bird population in. an area near a lake after the setting of an industrial unit in the same area. Explain the cause responsible for the decline observed.

Short / Long answer type questions .
Write the Oparin and Haldanes hypothesis about the origin of life on Earth. How does meteorite analysis favour this hypothesis ?

Match the terms to these definitions:
Heterotrophy,  autotroph, evolution,  prokaryote,  microsphere, ozone shield,  chemoheterotroph,  protocell
 .......... Cell forerunner developed from cell-like microspheres.

Short / Long answer type questions .
Describe in brief the Oparin-Haldane theory of origin of life. 

Short / Long answer type questions .
Oparin-Haldane theory states that life originated on this earth through complex organic molecules formed as a result of a series of chemical reactions. Name any two sources which provided energy for these chemical reactions.

Short/Long answer type questions:
What is a biogeographic map? Locate Galapagos islands in the world atlas. What was unique about these islands which helped Darwin arrive at significant concepts regarding evolution?

Short/Long answer type questions 
Explain taking one example of vertebrate anatomy that evolution of life forms has occurred on Earth.

Write a short note on Peking man.

Short / Long answer type questions .
Why annual rings are comparatively well marked in plants growing in hilly areas than those in coastal areas?

For evolution to take place, a population must have both ............ and .............

State Hardy-Weinberg principle of genetic equilibrium. Write any four factors affecting the equilibrium.

Write two factors affecting Hardy - Weinberg principle.

Under what conditions does the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium remain undisturbed?

Write your observations on the variations seen in Darwin's finches shown.


Mention any three characteristics of Neanderthal man that lived in Near East and Central Asia.

State the Hardy-Weinberg law.

What is adaptive radiation? Explain it with reference to Australian marsupials. Can this fauna indicate its parallel evolution with placental mammals? How do you explain their geographic distribution?

Name any two periodic events used in ancient time to count intervals of time?

The very fine blood capillaries in bats wings were discovered by _______

What is adaptive radiation? Give one example.

What evidence do we have for the origin of life from inanimate matter?

What is evolution according to Hardy- Weinberg?

Write an essay on different events that occur during development of human.

Observe the following figure and answer the questions:
(a) How did the human brain go on changing?
(b) Give examples of human progress?


Explain with suitable examples importance of anatomical evolution.

Describe how this equilibrium gets distributed, which may lead to founder effect.

What was proposed by, Oparin and Haldane on origin of life? How did S.L. Miller's experiment support their proposal?

Mention some of the tools for tracing evolutionary relationships among species. 

Dissimilar looking structures evolve from a common on ancestor. Explain.

The first remarkable human fossil was that of H.habilis/H. africanus.

We the present human beings are also having an evolutionary history like the plant and other animals.Do you agree to the statement why? Why not?

What are homologous organs?

Lateral meristems are secondary meristems on the basis of origin and lateral on the basis of location. Define

Flying squirrel and flying phalanger show convergent evolution. Justify.

Choose the odd one out from each of the following sets giving the reason for your choice.
Java ape Man, Peking man, cro - Magnon Man , Homo erectus

Differentiate between convergent and divergent evolution with an example.

List the two main propositions of Oparin and Haldane.

State and explain Hardy Weinberg's Principle.

Rearrange the following from early to late geologic periods:
Carboniferous, Silurian, Jurassic.

Write two differences between $$Homo\,erectus$$ and $$Homo\,habilis$$.

What is meant by adaptive radiation?

What forms the basis for evolutionary processes?

One of the examples of two analogous organs can be wings of parrot and
(a) Filler of whale
(b) foreleg of horse
(c) Front leg of frog
(d) wings of housefly

Rearrange the following in the correct order of their appearance on Earth between two million years and $$40,000$$ years back.
Neanderthals, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, and Homo habilis.

Which among the following had the largest brain size?
Neanderthals, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, and Homo habilis.

Give an example of convergent evolution and identify the features towards which they are converging.

Name the law that states that the sum of allelic frequencies in a population remains constant. What are the five factors that influence these values?

How do we compute the age of a fossil?

Explain divergent evolution in detail. What is the driving force behind it?

The scientists believe that evolution is gradual. But extinction, part of evolutionary story, is 'sudden' and 'abrupt' and also group-specific. Comment whether a natural disaster can be the cause of the extinction of species.

Briefly explain Ekpyrotic model.

How was life created, as per Oparin and Haldane?

Who among the Dryopithecus and Ramapithecus was more man-like?

Among the five factors that are known to affect Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, three factors are gene flow, genetic drift, and genetic recombination. What are the other two factors?

How do we compute the age of a rock?

In evolutionary terms, can we ask, which among bacteria, spiders, fish, and chimpanzees, have a better body design? Why or why not?

(a) Explain adaptive radiation with the help of suitable example.
(b) Cite an example where more than one adaptive radiations have occurred in an isolated geographical area. Name the type of evolution your example depicts and state why it is so named.

How does the process of natural selection affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Explain. List other four factors that disturb the equilibrium.

State a reason for the increased population of dark coloured moths coinciding with the loss of lichens (on tree barks) during industrialization period in England.

The process of evolution of different species in a geographical area starts from a point and literally radiates to other geographical areas. Explain it with example.

Arrange the following stages of the human evolution in the order of their increasing cranial capacity?
a) Neanderthal man  b) Cro-magnon man
c) Homo erectus     d) Homo habilis

Short/Long answer type questions
Give any two striking similarities in the structure of embryos of all vertebrates. What is the significance of such similarities in the concept of organic evolution?

Short/Long answer type questions 
How does phylogeny help in building a broad historical sequence of biological evolution? Explain with the help of the example of a horse.

Application Based Questions .
Stanley Miller and Harold C. Urey performed an experiment by recreating in the laboratory the probable conditions of the atmosphere of the primitive earth. 
What was the purpose of the experiment?

Short/Long answer type questions 
What are the chromosomal similarities found in apes and man? What do such similarities indicate?

Short/Long answer type questions 
State the significance of biochemical similarities amongst diverse organism in evolution.

Very short answer type :
Differentiate between Apes and Man with respect to the following characteristics Locomotion

Short/Long answer type questions 
Explain the following terms:
(a) Palaeontology  (b) Vestigial organs  (c) Geological time scale  (d) Atavism 
(e) Homologous organs  (f) Theory of recapitulation 

Short/Long answer type questions 
How do data from biogeography support the concept of common descent?

Write the mathematical formula representing this Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law.

Australian marsupials and placental mammals are suitable examples of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Explain giving reasons.

Convergent evolution. Independent development of similar form and feature by unrelated organism usually as an adaption to a similar environment.

In a population of $$1000$$ individuals $$360$$ belong to genotype AA, $$480$$ to Aa and the remaining $$160$$ to aa. Based on this data, the frequency of allele A in the population is?

What is Oparin Haldane theory? Can life be originated abiotically inside the laboratory today?

In a population frequency of the heterozygous individual is 42% the find out an individual with recessive phenotype and homozygous dominant phenotype.

'Experience of an individual during its lifetime can't be passed on to its progeny and can't direct evolution". Justify this statement giving an example.

Differentiate between divergent and convergent evolution. Given one example of each.

State the components of theory of abiogenesis.

$$p^2+2pq+q^2=1$$. Explain the algebraic equation on the basis of Hardy Weinberg's principle. 

Ausralopithecus and Homo erectus both had erect posture. But why Homo erectus is considered more advanced? Give atleast three such differentiating points to illustrate your answer.

Gene flow occurs through generations. Gene flow can occur across language barriers in humans. If we have a technique of measuring specific allele frequencies in a different population of the world, can we not predict human migratory patterns in pre-history and history? Do you agree or disagree? Provide an explanation for your answer.

Explain Hardy-Weinberg's principle, with the help of punnet square.

Class 12 Medical Biology Extra Questions